D. none of these
Ghazwa Tabuk was a military expedition led by the Prophet Muhammad in 630 CE. It was one of the last battles fought during the lifetime of the Prophet and took place in the Tabuk region of northwestern Arabia, near the border with the Byzantine Empire.
The reason for the expedition was that the Byzantine Empire was planning to attack the Muslim community in Medina, and the Prophet Muhammad received intelligence reports about their preparations. To prevent this, the Prophet decided to lead an army of about 30,000 Muslims to the border area.
However, when the Byzantine army learned of the Muslim army’s approach, they retreated back to their territory. The Muslim army did not engage in any significant battle with the Byzantines but encountered harsh weather conditions during their journey, which was a test of their faith and perseverance.
The expedition of Tabuk is also notable for being the last time the Prophet Muhammad led an army in person. It was a significant event in the history of Islam, as it demonstrated the strength and unity of the Muslim community and served as a warning to the Byzantine Empire against any future aggression towards the Muslims.
Byzantine Empire , are they Romans ?
Yes, the Byzantine Empire was a continuation of the Eastern Roman Empire, which was also known as the Byzantine Empire. The Eastern Roman Empire was formed after the division of the Roman Empire in 395 AD, with its capital in Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul).
The Byzantine Empire lasted from the 4th century until the fall of Constantinople in 1453, and during this time, it was the largest and most powerful state in the Mediterranean region. The Byzantine Empire was known for its strong military, rich culture, and contributions to the arts, science, and philosophy.
Although the Byzantines considered themselves as Roman, they had developed their own distinct culture and identity over time. The Byzantine Empire was influenced by various cultures, including Greek, Roman, and Christian, and its language, Greek, became the official language of the empire.